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Syllabus and Mark Distribution – Grade 11 – Geography

Course Structure

Part/Unit Topic or Chapter Marks 
Part AFundamentals of Physical Geography25
Unit-1Geography as a discipline
Unit-2The Earth
Unit-5Water (Oceans) – OTBA
Unit-6Life on the Earth
Map abd Diagram5
Part BIndia – Physical Environment25
Unit-9Climate, vegetation and soil
Unit-10Natural hazards and Disasters
Map and Diagram5
Part CPractical Work30
Unit-1Fundamentals of Maps10
Unit-2Topographic and Weather Maps15
Practical Record Book and Viva5

Part A: Fundamentals of Physical Geography

Unit-1: Geography as a Discipline
  • Geography as an integrating discipline, as a science of spatial attributes.
  • Branches of Geography; PhysicalGeography and Human Geography.
  • Scope and Career Options
Unit-2: The Earth
  • Origin and evolution of the earth; Interior of the earth.
  • Wegener’s continental drift theory and plate tectonics.
  • Earthquakes and volcanoes: causes, types and effects.
Unit-3: Landforms
  • Rocks: major types of rocks and their characteristics.
  • Landforms and their evolution.
  • Geomorphic processes: weathering, mass wasting, erosion and deposition; soil-formation.
Unit 4: Climate
  • Atmosphere- composition and structure;elements of weather and climate.
  • Insolation-angle of incidence and distribution; heat budget of the earth-heating and cooling of atmosphere (conduction, convection, terrestrial radiation and advection); temperature- factors controlling temperature; distribution of temperature-horizontal and vertical; inversion of temperature.
  • Pressure-pressure belts; winds-planetary, seasonal and local; air masses and fronts; tropical and extratropical cyclones.
  • Precipitation-evaporation; condensation-dew, frost,fog, mist and cloud; rainfall-types and world distribution.
  • World climates-classification (Koeppen and Thornthwaite), Global warming and climatic changes.
  • Climate and Global Concerns.
Unit 5: Hydrosphere
  • Basics of Oceanography
  • Oceans – distribution of temperature and salinity.
  • Movements of ocean water-waves, tides and currents; submarine reliefs.
  • Ocean resources and pollution.
Unit 6: Biosphere
  • Biosphere – importance of plants and other organisms; biodiversity and conservation; ecosystem and ecological balance.
Map work on identification of features based on 1 to 6 units on the outline/Physical/Political map of the world.

Part – B: India – Physical Environment

Unit-7: Introduction
  • Location, space relations, India’s place in the world.
Unit-8: Physiography 
  • Structure and Relief; Physiographic Divisions.
  • Drainage systems: Concept of river basins, Watershed; the Himalayan and the Peninsular rivers.
Unit-9: Climate, Vegetation and Soil
  • Weather and climate – spatial and temporal distribution of temperature, pressure winds and rainfall, Indian monsoon: mechanism, onset and withdrawal, variability of rainfalls: spatial and temporal; use of weather charts; Climatic types (Koeppen).
  • Natural vegetation-forest types and distribution; wild life; conservation; biosphere reserves.
  • Soils – major types (ICAR’s classification) and their distribution, soil degradation and conservation.
Unit-10: Hazards and Disasters: Causes, Consequences and Management
  • Floods, Cloudbursts
  • Droughts: types and impact
  • Earthquakes and Tsunami
  • Cyclones: features and impact
  • Landslides
Map Work of features based on above units for locating and labelling on the Outline/Political/Physical map of India.

Part – C: Practical Work

Unit-1: Fundamentals of Maps
  • Geo spatial data, Concept of Geographicaldata matrix; Point, line, area data.
  • Maps – types; scales-types; construction of simple linear scale, measuring distance; finding direction and use of symbols.
  • Map projection – Latitude, longitude and time, typology, construction and properties of projection: Conical with one standard parallel and Mercator’s projection. (only two projections)
Unit 2: Topographic and Weather Maps
  • Study of topographic maps (1:50,000 or 1:25,000 Survey of India maps); contour cross section and identification of landforms-slopes, hills, valleys, waterfall, cliffs; distribution of settlements.
  • Aerial Photographs: Types and Geometry-vertical aerial photographs; difference between maps and aerial photographs; photo scale determination. Identification of physical and cultural features.
  • Satellite imageries, stages in remote sensing data-acquisition, platform and sensors and data products, (photographic and digital).
  • Use of weather instruments: thermometer, wet and dry-bulb thermometer, barometer, wind vane, rain gauge.